We present a set of fault injection experiments performed on the ACES (LANL/SNL) Cray XE supercomputer Cielo. We use this experimental campaign to improve the under- standing of failure causes and propagation that we observed in the field failure data analysis of NCSA’s Blue Waters. We use the data collected from the logs and from network performance counter data 1) to characterize the fault-error-failure sequence and recovery mechanisms in the Gemini network and in the Cray compute nodes, 2) to understand the impact of failures on the system and the user applications at different scale, and 3) to identify and recreate fault scenarios that induce unrecoverable failures, in order to create new tests for system and application design. The faults were injected through special input commands to bring down network links, directional connections, nodes, and blades. We present extensions that will be needed to apply our methodologies of injection and analysis to the Cray XC (Aries) systems.